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Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center

Wildlife Toxicology

Study site locations: Minnesota -Trace elements in tree swallows

Concentrations of all trace elements were at background concentrations in tree swallows, however, this dataset allowed for a determination of normal variation among years.  There was no effect of a water-level drawdown on trace element concentrations.


Custer, C.M., T. W. Custer, D. Warburton, D. J. Hoffman, J. W. Bickham, and C. W. Matson. 2006. Trace element concentrations and bioindicator responses in tree swallows from northwestern Minnesota.  Environ. Monitor. Assess. 118:247-266.

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