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Histopathology of repeated, intermittent exposure of chloramine-T to walleye (Sander vitreum) and (Ictalurus punctalus) channel catfish

Gaikowski, M.P., Densmore, C.L., and Blazer, V.S., 2009, Histopathology of repeated, intermittent exposure of chloramine-T to walleye (Sander vitreum) and (Ictalurus punctalus) channel catfish: Aquaculture, v. 287, i. 1-2, p. 28-34.


Chloramine-T (Cl-T) has been used safely and effectively to control bacterial gill disease in salmonids at a maximum exposure regimen of up to four consecutive, once-daily exposures administered for 60 min at 20 mg/L. However, data to document safe treatment concentrations of Cl-T are lacking for freshwater-reared fish other than salmonids. We report the histopathology resultant from the administration of 12 consecutive, once-daily, 180-min static immersion baths of 0, 20, 50, or 80 mg Cl-T/L to walleye (20 °C) and channel catfish (27 °C). Twelve fish of each species were euthanized immediately before the first exposure (initial controls) and then after the twelfth exposure and 7 and 14 days after the twelfth exposure. Only initial controls and fish euthanized immediately after the twelfth exposure were processed for histological review because of the general lack of exposure-related lesions in exposed fish. The only exposure-related histological changes were in the spleen where significantly greater erythrocyte swelling and necrosis was observed in channel catfish exposed at 80 mg/L relative to exposure at 0 mg/L; similar histological changes were insignificant for walleye, though there appeared to be a shift in the general category of histological change with degenerative changes (necrosis, etc.) observed following exposure at 50 or 80 mg/L compared to the inflammatory and hemodynamic changes (congestion, leukocyte infiltrate, etc.) observed in walleye exposed at 0 or 20 mg/L. The only significant change in peripheral blood cytology was that walleye fingerlings exposed at 80 mg/L had significantly fewer mature red blood cells and significantly more immature red blood cells per oil-immersion field than controls. The histopathological changes observed following exposure to Cl-T under an exaggerated exposure regimen suggest that walleye or channel catfish therapeutically exposed to Cl-T will not have treatment-related histological changes.


Chloramine-T, Walleye, Channel catfish, Histopathology

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