Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center
Chronic toxicity of hydrogen peroxide to Daphnia magna in a continuous exposure, flow-through test system
Meinertz, J. R., Greseth, S. L., Gaikowski, M. P., and Schmidt, L. J., 2008, Chronic toxicity of hydrogen peroxide to Daphnia magna in a continuous exposure, flow-through test system: Science of the Total Environment v. 392, p. 225-232.
A flow-through, continuous exposure test system was developed to expose Daphnia magna to an unstable compound. 35% Perox-Aid® is a specially formulated hydrogen peroxide (a highly oxidative chemical) product approved for use in U.S. aquaculture and therefore has the potential to be released from aquaculture facilities and pose a risk to aquatic invertebrates. The study objective was to assess the effects of 35% Perox-Aid® on an aquatic invertebrate by evaluating the survival, growth, production, and gender ratio of progeny from a representative aquatic invertebrate continuously exposed to 35% Perox-Aid®. The study design consisted of 6 treatment groups (10 test chambers each) with target hydrogen peroxide concentrations of 0.0, 0.32, 0.63, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 mg L-1. The study was initiated with <24-h-old Daphnia (1 daphnid per chamber) that were exposed to hydrogen peroxide for 21 days. Hydrogen peroxide concentrations ≤1.25 mg L-1 had no significant effect on Daphnia time to death compared to controls and no significant effect on the time to first brood production and the number of broods produced. Concentrations ≤0.63 mg L-1 had no significant effect on the total number of young produced. Concentrations ≥0.32 mg L-1 had a negative effect on Daphnia growth. Hydrogen peroxide had no significant effect on the gender ratio of young produced. All second generation Daphnia were female. A continuous discharge of hydrogen peroxide into aquatic ecosystems is not likely to affect cladocerans if the concentration is maintained at ≤0.63 mg L-1 for less than 21 days.
Hydrogen peroxide, 35% Perox-Aid®, Daphnia survival, Daphnia growth, Continuous exposure