Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center
Least tern (Sterna antillarum), The Birds of North America
Thompson, B. C., Jackson, J. J., Burger, J., Hill, L. A., Kirsch, E. M., and Atwood, J. L., 1997, Least tern (Sterna antillarum), The Birds of North America: Philadelphia, PA, Academy of Natural Sciences, 32 pp.
This species account discusses: distinguishing characteristics, distribution, systematics, migration, habitat, food habits, vocalizations, behavior (locomotion, maintenance, agonistic, sexual, social, interspecific), breeding (phenology, nest site, nest, eggs, incubation, development of the young, parental care), demography and populations (life span, mortality, dispersal and philopatry, population status), conservation and management, plumages and molt, and measurements. There is also a bibliography which lists key references for additional information. (DBO)
Keywords: migration, ecological distribution, feeding behavior, demography, nature conservation, reproduction, life history, USA, Sterna antillarum, vocalization behavior, feeding behaviour, vocalization behaviour, taxonomy, aquatic birds, migratory species, habitat selection, breeding, INE, USA, California, ASW, USA, ANW, USA, Least tern