USGS - science for a changing world

Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center

Farm ponds as critical habitats for native amphibians
A Field Guide to Amphibian Larvae and Eggs of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Iowa
Field guide contents


Altig, R. 1970. A key to the tadpoles of the continental United States and Canada. Herpetologica 26(2):180–207.

Altig, R. and P. H. Ireland. 1984. A key to salamander larvae and larviform adults of the United States and Canada. Herpetologica 40(2):212–218.

Altig, R., R. W. McDiarmid, K. A. Nichols, and P. C. Ustach. 1998. Tadpoles of the United States and Canada: A Tutorial and Key. Contemporary Herpetology Information Series 1998 (2). http://

Caldwell, J. P. 1982. Disruptive selection: A tail color polymorphism in Acris tadpoles in response to differential predation. Canadian Journal of Zoology 60:2818–2827.

Casper, Gary S. 1996. Geographic distributions of the amphibians and reptiles of Wisconsin. Milwaukee Public Museum, Inc. Milwaukwee, Wisconsin. 87 pp.

Christiansen, J. L. 1998. Perspectives on Iowa’s declining amphibians and reptiles. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science 105(3):109–114.

Christiansen, J. L. and R. M. Bailey. 1991. The Salamanders and Frogs of Iowa. Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines. 24 pp.

Christoffel, R., R. Hay, and M. Wolfgram. 2001. Amphibians of Wisconsin. Bureau of Endangered Resources, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Madison, Wisconsin.

Conant, R. and J. T. Collins. 1991. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd Ed., Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. xviii + 450 pp.

Crother, Brian I. (Chair). 2000. Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, With Comments Regarding Confidence In Our Understanding. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular No. 29. iii + 82 pp.

Green, D. E. 2001. USGS Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative Standard Operating Procedures Pertaining to Amphibians. National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin USA. 37 pp.

Harding, James H. 1997. Amphibians and reptiles of the Great Lakes Region. University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor, Michigan. 378 pp.

Hay, B. 1998. Blanchard’s cricket frogs in Wisconsin: a status report. Pages 79–90 in Status and conservation of Midwestern amphibians (M. J. Lannoo, Ed.). University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa USA.

Hayes, M. P. and M. R. Jennings. 1986. Decline of ranid frog species in western North America: Are bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) responsible? Journal of Herpetology

Johnson, T. R. 2000. The amphibians and reptiles of Missouri, 2nd Ed. Missouri Dept. of Conservation, Jefferson City, Missouri.

Justus, J. T., M. Sandomir, T. Urquhart, and B. O. Ewan. 1977. Developmental rates of two species of toads from the desert southwest. Copeia 1977(3):592–594.

Kats, L. B., J. W. Petranka, and A. Sih. 1988. Antipredator defenses and the persistence of amphibian larvae with fishes. Ecology 69(6):1865–1870.

King, O. M. 1960. Observations on Oklahoma toads. Southwestern Naturalist

Lannoo, M. J. 1998. Amphibian conservation and wetland management in the upper midwest: a catch 22 for the cricket frog. Pages 331–339 in Status and Conservation of Midwestern Amphibians (M. J. Lannoo, Ed.). University of Iowa Press, Iowa City.

Mattison, C. 1993. Keeping and breeding amphibians. Sterling Publ. Co., New York. 224 pp.

McDiarmid, R. W. and R. Altig (Eds.) 1999. Tadpoles: the biology of anuran larvae. Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. 444 pp.

Oberfoell, E. C. and J. L. Christiansen. 2001. Identification and distribution of the treefrogs Hyla versicolor and Hyla chrysoscelis in Iowa. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science 108(3):79–83.

Oldfield, B. and J. J. Moriarty. 1994. Amphibians and reptiles native to Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. xv + 237 pp.

Parmelee, J. R. 1993. Microhabitat segregation and spatial relationships among four species of mole salamanders (Genus Ambystoma). Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 160:1–33.

Pechmann, J. H. K. and D. B. Wake. 1997. Declines and disappearances of amphibian populations. In: Principles of Conservation Biology (G. K. Meffe, C. R. Carroll, and contributors), pp. 135–137. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA.

Petranka, J. W. 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. xvi + 587 pp.

Pfennig, D. W. 1992. Polyphenism in spadefoot toad tadpoles as a locally adjusted evolutionarily stable strategy. Evolution 46(5):1408–1420.

Platz, J. E. 1989. Speciation within the chorus frog Pseudacris triseriata: morphometric and mating call analyses of the boreal and western subspecies. Copeia.

Russell, A. P. and A. M. Bauer. 1993. The amphibians and reptiles of Alberta. A field guide and primer of boreal herpetology. Univ. Calgary Press. Calgary, Alberta Canada. x + 264 pp.

Stebbins, R. C. 1985. A field guide to Western amphibians and reptiles. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. xiv + 336 pp.

Watermolen, D. J. 1995. A key to the eggs of Wisconsin’s amphibians. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Research Report (165).

Watermolen, D. J. and H. Gilbertson. 1996. Keys for the identification of Wisconsin’s larval amphibians. Wisconsin Endangered Resources Report (109), Wisconsin DNR.

Werner, E. E. and M. A. McPeek. 1994. Direct and indirect effects of predators on two anuran species along an environmental gradient. Ecology 75:1386–1392.

Wright, A. H. and A. A. Wright. 1949. Handbook of frogs and toads of the United States and Canada. Comstock, Ithaca, NY, xiv + 640 pp.

Van Gorp, C. D. 2002. Changes in the distribution of Acris crepitans blanchardi, with studies of nesting microhabitat and the possible impact of ultraviolet radiation. Master’s Thesis, Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa.

Vogt, R. C. 1981. Natural history of amphibians and reptiles of Wisconsin. Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 205 pp.

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey

Page Contact Information: Contacting the Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center
Page Last Modified: December 29, 2010