Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center
Tree Swallows: A Nationwide Sentinel Species for Assessing
and Monitoring Aquatic Contamination
swallows are a useful bird species to measure
exposure and effects of environmental contaminants:
- They are widely distributed throughout the United States,
- They will nest in boxes,so they can be attracted to
- They feed near their nest box on
emergent aquatic insects.
Aquatic insects emerge from
river sediments, so the swallows' tissues reflect levels
contaminants in sediments.
Contaminant Effects on Tree Swallows: A Nationwide Indicator
UMESC file types